Students are reminded that plagiarism is not acceptable. GOOGLE has given us great access to information and ‘cut and paste’ has made document production so much quicker. Please use these resources by all means but look at multiple sites for your information in order to get a balanced view. Paraphrase what you read so you can demonstrate your understanding of the subject.

Regardless of whether you cut and paste portions OR paraphrase what you are reading, you must acknowledge the source of the information. It’s a case of ‘giving credit where credit is due’. If you quote something word for word then use quotation marks and list the source. For example: As Shakespeare said “the world’s a stage”; “the world’s a stage” (Shakespeare). These are simple was of acknowledging that the words/thoughts were someone else’s.

If you cut and paste portions of information, ask yourself if you could put the same information in your own words.


The last century saw the perfection of the bureaucracy — a form of organization that has been enormously successful and is the result of thousands of years of trial and error evolution. Max Weber outlined the key characteristics of a bureaucracy:

  • specification of jobs with detailed rights, obligations, responsibilities, scope of authority
  • system of supervision and subordination
  • unity of command
  • extensive use of written documents
  • training in job requirements and skills
  • application of consistent and complete rules (company manual)
  • assign work and hire personnel based on competence and experience

Today, many of these principles seem obvious and commonplace. However, they are all inventions — organizations did not always have these features.

Today we also think of bureaucracies as inefficient, slow and generally bad. In Weber’s time, they were seen as marvellously efficient machines that reliably accomplished their goals. And in fact, bureaucracies did become enormously successful, easily out competing other organization forms such as family businesses and adhocracies. They also did much to introduce concepts of fairness and equality of opportunity into society, having a profound effect on the social structure of nations.

However, bureaucracies are better for some tasks than others. In particular, bureaucracies are not well-suited to industries in which technology changes rapidly or is not yet well-understood. Bureaucracies excel at businesses involving routine tasks that can be well-specified in writing and don’t change quickly.Source: (this discussion based on the discussion in “The Organizational Age” by Rodney Stark in Sociology, 3 Edition). Stephen Borgatti .

I recommend you read this article in its entirety.

  • Try paraphrasing this and email it to me.
  •  Use Wikipedia sparingly. Look up meanings in Wiki and them look up a lot more sites on the subject – get a lot of perspectives. Using one source of information is always dangerous.


Reflection: Why is using one source of information dangerous?


Copying large portions of someone else’s work whether it’s a fellow students or a seemingly anonymous source off the internet is a “NO, NO”!

PPD training policy regarding plagiarism is to give you two warnings and then suspend your studies. We want to know what you know: not your colleague; not your brother (who did the course last year); not Einstein nor Wikipedia – YOU!

Your Trainers can help you learn how to reference your sources. Your Trainers are also very familiar with websites containing the information relevant to your courses, so can spot work from these sites easily as they can deviations in your style of language.

Those of you doing your vocational qualification with a view to going to university should begin using referencing systems such as the Harvard Referencing Guide. Your local university will also have material on this.

Diploma students must start using these conventions. The quality of material you are producing will immediately be better. The well referenced report adds value to your work and will be appreciated by your readers.


Intellectual Property

Copyright laws are in place to protect the intellectual property of their creators. You create a revolutionary piece of machinery: The Hills Hoist (now an Australian domestic icon), you can patent the design.




You have an idea, a revolutionary way of looking at something – you want to share it with the world (well let’s hope you want to) what comes next…


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